[Country map of Romania]



Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine

Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

total area: 237,500 sq km
land area: 230,340 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: total 2,508 km, Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia and Montenegro 476 km (all with Serbia), Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (south) 169 km

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: certain territory of Moldova and Ukraine - including Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina - are considered by Bucharest as historically a part of Romania; this territory was incorporated into the former Soviet Union following the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1940

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Natural resources: petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt

Land use:
arable land: 43%
permanent crops: 3%
meadows and pastures: 19%
forest and woodland: 28%
other: 7%

Irrigated land: 34,500 sq km (1989 est.)

current issues: soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
natural hazards: earthquakes most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Note: controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine


Population: 23,198,330 (July 1995 est.)
note: the Romanian census of January 1992 gives the population for that date as 22.749 million; the government estimates that population declined in 1993 by 0.3%

Age structure:
0-14 years: 21% (female 2,413,933; male 2,534,019)
15-64 years: 67% (female 7,737,531; male 7,732,038)
65 years and over: 12% (female 1,604,210; male 1,176,599) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.09% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 13.71 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.93 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.24 years
male: 69.31 years
female: 75.35 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Romanian(s)
adjective: Romanian

Ethnic divisions: Romanian 89.1%, Hungarian 8.9%, German 0.4%, Ukrainian, Serb, Croat, Russian, Turk, and Gypsy 1.6%

Religions: Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 6% (of which 3% are Uniate), Protestant 6%, unaffiliated 18%

Languages: Romanian, Hungarian, German

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1992)
total population: 97%
male: 98%
female: 95%

Labor force: 11.3 million (1992)
by occupation: industry 38%, agriculture 28%, other 34% (1989)


conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Romania
local long form: none
local short form: Romania

Digraph: RO

Type: republic

Capital: Bucharest

Administrative divisions: 40 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea

Independence: 1881 (from Turkey; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)

National holiday: National Day of Romania, 1 December (1990)

Constitution: 8 December 1991

Legal system: former mixture of civil law system and Communist legal theory; is now based on the Constitution of France's Fifth Republic

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ion ILIESCU (since 20 June 1990, previously President of Provisional Council of National Unity since 23 December 1989); election last held 27 September 1992, with runoff between top two candidates on 11 October 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Ion ILIESCU 61.4%, Emil CONSTANTINESCU 38.6%
head of government: Prime Minister Nicolae VACAROIU (since November 1992)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
Senate (Senat): elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - PSDR 34.3%, CDR 18.2%, DP-FSN 12.6%, others 34.9%; seats - (143 total) PSDR 49, CDR 26, DP-FSN 18, PUNR 13, UDMR 12, PRM 6, PAC 6, PDAR 5, PSM 5, PL-93 2 other 1
House of Deputies (Adunarea Deputatilor): elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - PSDR 34.0%, CDR 16,4%, DP-FSN 12.3%, others 37.3%; seats - (341 total) PSDR 116, CDR 56, DP-FSN 42, PUNR 29, UDMR 27, PL-93 19, PRM 15, PSM 13, PAC 5, other 19

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice, Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party (DP-FSN), Petre ROMAN; Social Democratic Party of Romania (PSDR), Adrian NASTASE; Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR), Bela MARKO; National Liberal Party (PNL), Mircea IONESCU-QUINTUS; National Peasants' Christian and Democratic Party (PNTCD), Corneliu COPOSU; Romanian National Unity Party (PUNR), Gheorghe FUNAR; Socialist Labor Party (PSM), Ilie VERDET; Agrarian Democratic Party of Romania (PDAR), Victor SURDU; The Democratic Convention (CDR), Emil CONSTANTINESCU; Romania Mare Party (PRM), Corneliu Vadim TUDOR; Civic Alliance Party (PAC), Nicolae MANOLESCU, chairman
note: numerous other small parties exist but almost all failed to gain representation in the most recent election

Other political or pressure groups: various human rights and professional associations


Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mihai Horia BOTEZ
chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alfred H. MOSES
embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest
mailing address: American Consulate General (Bucharest), Unit 1315, Bucharest; APO AE 09213-1315
telephone: [40] (1) 210 01 49, 210 40 42
FAX: [40] (1) 210 03 95
branch office: Cluj-Napoca

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flags of Andorra and Chad


Overview: Despite the continuing difficulties in moving away from the former command system, the Romanian economy seems to have bottomed out in 1993-94. Market oriented reforms have been introduced fitfully since the downfall of CEAUSESCU in December 1989, with the result a growing private sector, especially in services. The slow pace of structural reform, however, has exacerbated Romania's high inflation rate and eroded real wages. Agricultural production rebounded in 1993 from the drought-reduced harvest of 1992. The economy continued its recovery in 1994, further gains being realized in agriculture, construction, services, and trade. Food supplies are adequate but expensive. Romania's infrastructure had deteriorated over the last five years due to reduced levels of public investment. Residents of the capital reported frequent disruptions of heating and water services. The slow and painful process of conversion to a more open economy will continue in 1995.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $64.7 billion (1994 est.)

National product real growth rate: 3.4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $2,790 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 62% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 10.9% (December 1994)

revenues: $8.3 billion
expenditures: $9.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Exports: $6 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: metals and metal products 17.6%, mineral products 11.9%, textiles 18.5%, electric machines and equipment 8.4%, transport materials 6.5% (1994)
partners: EC 36.1%, developing countries 27.4%, East and Central Europe 14.9%, EFTA 5.1%, Russia 5%, Japan 1.4%, US 1.3% (1993)

Imports: $6.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: minerals 21.1%, machinery and equipment 19.7%, textiles 11.5%, agricultural goods 9.2% (1994)
partners: EC 45.8%, East and Central Europe 8.6%, developing countries 22.6%, Russia 11%, EFTA 6.2%, US 5.0%, Japan 0.8% (1993)

External debt: $4.4 billion (1994)

Industrial production: growth rate -1% (1993 est.); accounts for 45% of GDP

capacity: 22,180,000 kW
production: 50.8 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 2,076 kWh (1993)

Industries: mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, machine building, food processing, petroleum production and refining

Agriculture: accounts for 18% of GDP and 28% of labor force; major wheat and corn producer; other products - sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, milk, eggs, meat, grapes

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for southwest Asian heroin and Latin American cocaine transiting the Balkan route

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 leu (L) = 100 bani

Exchange rates: lei (L) per US$1 - 1,776.00 (January 1995), 1,655.09 (1994), 760.05 (1993), 307.95 (1992), 76.39 (1991), 22.432 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year


total: 11,365 km
broad gauge: 45 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 10,893 km 1.435-m gauge (3,723 km electrified; 3,060 km double track)
narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (1994)

total: 461,880 km
paved: 235,559 km (113 km of expressways)
unpaved: 226,321 km (1992)

Inland waterways: 1,724 km (1984)

Pipelines: crude oil 2,800 km; petroleum products 1,429 km; natural gas 6,400 km (1992)

Ports: Braila, Constanta, Galatz, Mangalia, Sulina, Tulcea

Merchant marine:
total: 238 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,528,971 GRT/3,849,943 DWT
ships by type: bulk 46, cargo 167, container 2, oil tanker 14, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7
note: in addition, Romania owns 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,207,388 DWT that operate under Liberian, Maltese, Cypriot, and Bahamian registry

total: 156
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 4
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 17
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 108


Telephone system: about 2.3 million telephones; 99 telephones/1,000 persons; 89% of phone network is automatic; poor service; cable and open wire
local: NA
intercity: trunk network is microwave; roughly 3,300 villages with no service (February 1990)
international: 1 INTELSAT earth station; new digital international direct dial exchanges are in Bucharest (1993)

broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 5, shortwave 0
radios: NA

broadcast stations: 13 (1990)
televisions: NA

Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Paramilitary Forces, Civil Defense

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 5,934,524; males fit for military service 5,002,287; males reach military age (20) annually 196,587 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: 1,260 billion lei, 3% of GDP (1994); note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results